Goodpasture syndrome is also referred to as anti- glomerular basement antibody disease or also as goodpasture’s disease. This condition is a rare disease which is characterized by GN or glomerular nephritis and bleeding of lungs. Though there may be several diseases present simultaneously along with the symptom, the name Goodpasture’s disease is used primarily for a type II hypersensitivity wherein an autoimmune disease gets stimulated when the affected individual’s immune system assails Goodpasture antigen. This goodpastures antigen is usually found in lung as well s kidney and harms these organs. The name of the disease is derived from the name of a American pathologist known as Dr. Ernest Goodpasture. His description about the condition introduced in the year 1919 was said to be the first report on the Goodpasture syndrome.
Symptoms of Goodpasture syndrome:
There are several symptoms experienced by a person affected with goodpasture’s disease. Under the influence of the condition the patient may start coughing with some amount of blood noticed while coughing. The person may also face difficulties while urinating such as burning sensation experienced during passing out urine etc. However, initially symptoms may be different and may include fatigue, queasiness, breathing difficulties etc. A person may also experience pallor (decreased oxyhaemoglobin in skin). Later when the symptoms progresses it may also have influence on the kidney which may result in symptoms such as protein in urine, some amount of blood seen in urine as well as other aspects noticed under laboratory examinations.
In some patients one of the either conditions, lung disease of kidney disease, is experienced; whereas in other patients both the issues may be noticed. The symptoms may start with lung issues which may be noticed days or months before the damages to the kidney become evident.
• Lung disease under Good pasture syndrome:
Under Goodpasture syndrome lung disease may be present with insignificant signs such as mild dry coughs or minor difficulties while breathing. However, these symptoms may be extremely persistent and may last for several years which may gradually lead to a more severe condition. At its severe stages the lung issues may cause serious impairment of oxygenation which may make it necessary for the patient to under intensive care. Impairment may be experienced very rapidly between the two extreme points. This is usually as simultaneous to the deterioration noticed in kidney. The patient often, intentionally or unintentionally, does not seek treatment or expert’s assistance unless he/ she start experiencing blood coughs also scientifically known as hemoptysis. The affected individual may also suffer from anemia due to loss of blood because of bleeding or hemorrhage of lung. In case of good pastures syndrome or other such conditions that has similar syndrome, lung hemorrhaging is usually experienced by smokers.
• Kidney disease under Goodpasture syndrome:
The kidney issue associated with this condition usually causes nephritis due to its influence on glomeruli. The prevalence of the disease is not understood until the condition advances rapidly. Under such a case the functionality of the kidney may be lost completely within a matter of days; this condition is known as “rapid progressive glomeruli nephritis” which is abbreviated as RPGN. There are possibilities that the blood may enter the urine resulting in hematuria, in this condition the amount of the urine output is reduced. Other products such as urea, that are emitted by t he kidney is also stored and accumulated in the blood stream. It is only after 80% loss of kidney functionality that the symptoms of the condition are noticed. Some of the symptoms may include, dramatic reduction is appetite, uneasiness etc. When the condition progresses further the patient may also experience issues such respiration issues hypertension as well as swelling due to retention of fluid (scientifically known as edema).
Treatment of Goodpasture syndrome:
Like other autoimmune issues, Goodpasture syndrome reacts well to medical regimen including immunosuppressants as well as corticosteroids. These medications suppress the body’s usual immune response and the affected individual may turn even more vulnerable to infections. Anti- GBM antibodies concentration in the blood can be decreases through apheresis to eradicate blood plasma and substitute a part of it with and isotonic salt as well as protein solution. The medical regimen usually persists for approximately 3 to 6 months.
Though these treatments may be helpful they cannot completely reverse permanent kidney issues developed due to the condition. People who have suffered from this syndrome may require renal transplant after the disease is subsided.
Viral infections, particularly influenza (normally referred to as flu), as well as kidney surgery are usually regarded as major causes of Goodpastrue’s syndrome. One of the other causes of the condition may include inherited affected component in the body. Exposure to certain affected chemicals, such as hydrocarbon solvents as well as weed killerN,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride, are also said to be common factors causing Goodpasture’s disease.
Diagnosis of Goodpasture syndrome:
Initially, due to vague and benign symptoms diagnosis are usually not done at early stage of the disease. However, it is usually detected when the condition turns severe. A kidney biopsy is usually the quickest method to decure the tests and obtain information about the prevalence and severity of the conditions. In some cases, anti- GBM antibodies test may also prove to be beneficial. This test is usually combined with antibodies examination to neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens.
Prognosis of Goodpasture syndrome:
Durin 70 when there were no method to cope with the condition, Goodpasture syndrome used to be fatal. However, due to advancement in diagnosis as well as medical treatment, the death rate has significantly decreased. Lung hemorrhage can lead to death even before undergoing diagnosis or initial phase of any medical regimen if the condition is not controlled appropriately. There are chances that the patient may recover form lung damages completely. However, kidney damages may not repair and the affected individual may have to rely on dialysis or kidney transplant.
Even during undergoing best management for the condition, the risk of death may persist in certain cases; for example when the patient does not enjoy good health. Some treatment may increase the chances of infection as well. Hence due to such complication the condition is a serious physical disease and one should not take Goodpasture disease less seriously.